Exit site


Exit site


Violence Against Women (VAW) as defined by the UN, 1993 is “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life." (As defined by the UN).

Domestic Violence (DV) as defined by the Home Office, 27 March 2015: An aspect of VAW encompassing any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality. The abuse can encompass, but is not limited to:






Controlling behaviour is a range of acts designed to make a person subordinate and/or dependent by isolating them from sources of support, exploiting their resources and capacities for personal gain, depriving them of the means needed for independence, resistance and escape and regulating their everyday behaviour.

Coercive behaviour is an act or a pattern of acts of assault, threats, humiliation and intimidation or other abuse that is used to harm, punish, or frighten their victim. This is not a legal definition.

Duluth Wheel

The Duluth Wheel, developed out of a programme in Duluth, Minnesota in 1981, shows how perpetrators use various means to exert power and control over those they choose to abuse. The Wheel of Equality shows how a healthy relationship should look. 

Wheel of Power and Control:

You can download the Wheel of Power and Control and the Wheel of Equality here.


Wheel of Equality:

Duluth Wheel